Blue And White China
Blue and white porcelain is contrived using the color blue, usually from cobalt oxide, to create designs on shaped clean, white clay that is then covered in a layer of transparent glaze and baked in a kiln at high temperatures. Traces of blue and white wares are found beginning in the Tang dynasty (618-907) but it was not until the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) that the art reached perfection. In the early 14th century, mass-production of fine, transparent, blue and white porcelain started at Jingdezhen (景德鎮), sometimes called the “porcelain capital (瓷都)” of China. During the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, the blue and white ware industry became increasingly important because at this time, blue and white porcelain was not only known within the borders of China, it was also welcomed in the international trade market, initiating its imitation throughout Asia. In current times, blue and white wares are common in daily life in forms ranging from dinner sets to vases.
Blue And White China
The first Chinese blue and white wares were as early as the ninth century in Henan province, China; although only shards have been discovered. Tang period blue-and-white is even rarer than Song blue-and-white and was unknown before 1985. The Tang pieces are not porcelain however, but rather earthenwares with greenish white slip, using cobalt blue pigments. The only three pieces of complete “Tang blue and white” in the world were recovered from Indonesian Belitung shipwreck in 1998 and later sold to Singapore. It appears that the technique was thereafter forgotten for some centuries.
Blue And White China
Blue and white porcelain is contrived using the color blue, usually from cobalt oxide, to create designs on shaped clean, white clay that is then covered in a layer of transparent glaze and baked in a kiln at high temperatures. Traces of blue and white wares are found beginning in the Tang dynasty (618-907) but it was not until the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) that the art reached perfection. In the early 14th century, mass-production of fine, transparent, blue and white porcelain started at Jingdezhen (景德鎮), sometimes called the “porcelain capital (瓷都)” of China.
Blue And White China
In the early 14th century, mass-production of fine, translucent, blue and white porcelain started at Jingdezhen, sometimes called the porcelain capital of China. This development was due to the combination of Chinese techniques and Islamic trade. The new ware was made possible by the export of cobalt from Persia (called Huihui qing, 回回青, “Islamic blue”), combined with the translucent white quality of Chinese porcelain. Cobalt blue was considered as a precious commodity, with a value about twice that of gold. Motifs also draw inspiration from Islamic decorations. A large portion of these blue-and-white wares was then shipped to Southwest-Asian markets through the Muslim traders based in Guangzhou.
Blue And White China
Chinese blue and white porcelain was once-fired: after the porcelain body was dried, decorated with refined cobalt-blue pigment mixed with water and applied using a brush, coated with a clear glaze and fired at high temperature. From the 16th century, local sources of cobalt blue started to be developed, although Persian cobalt remained the most expensive. Production of blue and white wares has continued at Jingdezhen to this day. Blue and white porcelain made at Jingdezhen probably reached the height of its technical excellence during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty (r. 1661–1722).
Blue And White China
During the 17th century, numerous blue and white pieces were made as Chinese export porcelain for the European markets. European symbols and scenes coexisted with Chinese scenes for these objects. In the 1640s, rebellions in China and wars between the Ming dynasty and the Manchus damaged many kilns, and in 1656–1684 the new Qing Dynasty government stopped trade by closing its ports. Chinese exports almost ceased and other sources were needed to fulfill the continuing Eurasian demand for blue and white. In Japan, Chinese potter refugees were able to introduce refined porcelain techniques and enamel glazes to the Arita kilns. From 1658, the Dutch East India Company looked to Japan for blue-and-white porcelain to sell in Europe. Initially, the Arita kilns like the Kakiemon kiln could not yet supply enough quality porcelain to the Dutch East India Company, but they quickly expanded their capacity. From 1659–1740, the Arita kilns were able to export enormous quantities of porcelain to Europe and Asia. Gradually the Chinese kilns recovered, and by about 1740 the first period of Japanese export porcelain had all but ceased. From about 1640 Dutch Delftware also became a competitor, using styles frankly imitative of the East Asian decoration.
During the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, the blue and white ware industry became increasingly important because at this time, blue and white porcelain was not only known within the borders of China, it was also welcomed in the international trade market, initiating its imitation throughout Asia. In current times, blue and white wares are common in daily life in forms ranging from dinner sets to vases.
The early wares were strongly influenced by Chinese and other Oriental porcelains and an early pattern was blue onion, which is still in production at the Meissen factory today. The first phase of the French porcelain was also strongly influenced by Chinese designs. Early English porcelain wares were also influenced by Chinese wares and when, for example, the production of porcelain started at Worcester, nearly forty years after Meissen, Oriental blue and white wares provided the inspiration for much of the decoration used. Hand-painted and transfer-printed wares were made at Worcester and at other early English factories in a style known as Chinoiserie. Many other European factories followed this trend. In Delft, Netherlands blue and white ceramics taking their designs from Chinese export porcelains made for the Dutch market were made in large numbers throughout the 17th Century. Blue and white Delftware was itself extensively copied by factories in other European countries, including England, where it is known as English Delftware.
You can search by colour using the Pattern name box in the Search Facility above, simply type in the name of your colour. Or these links will take you to all the china patterns in your choice of colour. As you might expect much of our china is printed in blue, but we do have these other colours.A pattern printed in a base colour, with other colours added by hand or printed are grouped as Pink with Colour, Blue with Colour etc.
Blue and white decoration first became widely used in Chinese porcelain in the 14th century, after the cobalt pigment for the blue began to be imported from Persia. A style of decoration based on sinuous plant forms spreading across the object was perfected, and most commonly used. It was widely exported, and inspired imitative wares in Islamic ceramics and later European tin-glazed earthenware such as Delftware and after the techniques were discovered in the 18th century, European porcelain. Blue and white pottery in all of these traditions continues to be produced, most of it copying earlier styles.
The true development of blue and white ware in China started with the first half of the 14th century, when it progressively replaced the century-long tradition of bluish-white ware, or Qingbai. The main production center was in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province.
By the beginning of the 17th century Chinese blue and white porcelain was being exported directly to Europe. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Oriental blue and white porcelain was highly prized in Europe and America and sometimes enhanced by fine silver and gold mounts, it was collected by kings and princes.
Ming dynasty Xuande mark and period (1426–35) imperial blue and white vase. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 明宣德 景德鎮窯青花貫耳瓶, 纽约大都博物馆. Early Jingdezhen Blue and white porcelain (those produced from the Yuan – early Ming periods) utilized imported cobalt from the Middle East, a material that was relatively difficult for potters to refine and control, resulting in the ‘heap and pile’ appearance of this vase’s painted underglaze decorations.
With the advent of the Ming dynasty in 1368, blue and white ware was shunned for a time by the Court, especially under the Hongwu and Yongle Emperors, as being too foreign in inspiration. Blue and white porcelain however came back to prominence with the Xuande Emperor, and again developed from that time on.
Can men and women be just friends? When Harvard first-year Honor McGee met sophomore Jay Lundy in the fall of 2006, her answer to that eternal question was yes, of course. “We both got along so well from the start,” says Honor. “But I was 18 and not looking to date anybody.” Jay had other ideas. “Part of me always hoped there was something between us,” he recalls. Then in spring 2009, during Jay’s last semester, Honor’s heel broke at a 1920s-themed party. Although he hated leaving the cigars and cocktails, Jay walked her home to change shoes, and something else they couldn’t quite pinpoint changed between them, too. Jay finally asked Honor out on an official date. Like a modern Cinderella, Honor realized that the shoe fit as far as Jay was concerned, and the friends started dating at last. Nearly five years and six cities later, the two entrepreneurs settled in the Big Apple. They were on a vacation in Harbour Island, Bahamas, during the local “Junkanoo” New Year’s celebration when Jay popped the question, orchestrating a beach proposal that was captured by a local photographer disguised as a cabana man. Given the pair’s well-traveled past, picking a place to get married was tricky. “We wanted our wedding to feel like ‘coming home’ but also to recognize the places and influences that shaped us,” says Honor. Her parents wed in Connecticut, so she and Jay searched the state, finding the ideal spot in Winvian Farm, a 113-acre property near her family’s country house. Then they partnered up to plan the big day, creating what Honor calls an “English garden party meets Paris in the Jazz Age” soirée. It reflected both the look of their venue and the feel of the night that sparked their romance. Inspired by a blue-and-white chinoiserie fruit bowl that sat on Honor’s kitchen counter when she was growing up and their interest in the pattern’s history, the duo even worked with a stationer to create a different custom design for every event of the weekend. A version with lovebirds graced the invitations, which brought 186 guests (plus 13 children) to their wedding on June 6, 2015. A judge (and family friend) led the secular ceremony, which was punctuated with a Yiddish poem translated by Honor’s maternal grandmother and read by her paternal grandmother, and a single tear from Jay. “I just couldn’t control it when I saw Honor in her dress for the first time,” he says. After the emotional vow exchange came outdoor cocktails, then dinner, toasts, and cake under a tent; followed by cigars and dancing to DJ-spun tunes from Motown to Jay Z in a converted barn; and finally, charcuterie and cheese at 1 a.m. in the main house. The weekend was capped off with a Harbour Island–themed brunch in honor of Jay’s Bahamian proposal—and a definitive answer to that question: Men and women can be friends. And, if they’re lucky, best friends can end up as husband and wife.